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Mere uniformity of external regularity never justifies a conclusion of normativity.

Governments attach importance to distinguishing between custom by which they hold themselves bound, and the mere practices often dictated by consideration of expediency and therefore devoid of definite legal meaning.

Jim Bucking is a Partner at Foley Hoag, where he represents corporations and other employers in union disputes, complex employment litigation and other labor and employment matters.

Jim has extensive experience representing management at the bargaining table in union negotiations and litigating labor disputes in court, before arbitrators and at the National Labor Relations Board.

This restriction applies to hiring, tenure, or "any term or condition of employment."[62] [63] [64] * Federal law states that the above prohibitions do not censor employers or unions from expressing "any views, argument, or opinion," as long as "such expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit" to employees.[65] [66] * The NLRB has adopted a policy of setting aside any election that "was accompanied by conduct that the NLRB thinks created an atmosphere of confusion or fear of reprisals and thus interfered with the employees' freedom of choice." Per the NLRB: In any particular case the NLRB does not attempt to determine whether the conduct actually interfered with the employees' expression of free choice, but rather asks whether the conduct tended to do so. Page 74: "Where a union is acting as the exclusive representative of bargaining unit employees, it has to represent all unit employees without discrimination. By contrast, women held approximately two-fifths of fulltime jobs in the federal government and in the private sector (42.2% and 41.7%, respectively). On average, public sector employees have more years of education than private sector workers. We think it noteworthy that 8(a)(3) protects the employment rights of the dissatisfied member, as well as those of the worker who never assumed full union membership. Code Title 29, Chapter 7, Subchapter II, Section 158: "Unfair labor practices." Accessed May 27, 2014 at (a) (3) …

There is a presumption that any unsigned changes in the Will was made after it was signed and witnessed (executed).

An affidavit of due execution might be needed from the solicitor, legal executive or witnesses who were present at the time the Will was signed and witnessed or when it was republished by the Codicil.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect.

If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

A codicil is a testamentary document that is executed in the same way as a Will and is submitted (if any was made) together with the Will when applying for Probate.

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