Concepts of refuse behavior and site abandonment have been developed that show potential to distinguish degrees of mobility and sedentism among past human communities.Whereas much of this work had been conducted in ethnographic situations or on recent sites, this study makes an initial attempt to apply this body of theory to the archaeological record of humanity's most fundamental settlement transition: from mobile hunter-gatherer to settled village farmer.
10,300–9200 years BP), and some form of consistent garbage cycling was probably a standard feature in many villages by the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (ca.
University of Haifa Israel Laboratory for Ground Stone Tools Research Zinman Institute of Archaeology University of Haifa Mount Carmel3498898 Haifa Israel Bedrock features are a hallmark of the Natufian (ca.
15,000-11,500 cal BP) in the southern Levant and beyond and they include a large variety of types, from deep variants to shallow ones and from narrow mortars to wide basins.
Numerous freshwater Melanopsis praemorsa (Marsh Snail) shells, scattered at this level throughout the Natufian deposits and final phases of aggraded silts, indicate the former existence of extensive nearby springheads feeding through a flat-bottomed valley.
The situation during the Natufian occupation probably resembled the present Wadi Jirm springs and valley floor two kilometres to the south at the site of ancient Pella, where Melanopsis praemorsa colonies still cluster around the freshwater outlets.
453 394 on Deir Abu Sa'id 1 :50,000 sheet 3154 IV).